Late 1800's US Immigration Trends: US Immigration Flow 1880 - 1900
US Immigration Trends in the late1880's: The immigration flow into the United States 1880 - 1900 is detailed in the following chart.
Late 1800's US Immigration Flow: 1880 - 1900
1881 - 1890: 5,246,613 immigrants arrived in the US
1891 - 1900: 3,687,564 immigrants arrived in the US
Summary of Late 1800's US Immigration Trends
US Immigration Trends in the late 1800's : The following chart provides a summary of the US Immigration Trends between 1880 and 1910
Summary of Late 1800's US Immigration Trends: 1880 - 1900
Trends 1880 - 1900: The majority of arrivals were from Eastern and Southern Europe and Asia
Trends 1880 - 1900: The Second Industrial Revolution led to the mechanization of industry, the factory system and Urbanization in America
Trends 1880 - 1900: Immigrants were attracted to the cities which led population explosion in American cities
Trends 1880 - 1900: Immigration was encouraged by Big Businesses but workers protested at the number of migrants
Trends 1880 - 1900: The government passed laws restricting immigration and opened Ellis Island
Trends 1880 - 1900: The 4 year depression in the 1890's led to civil unrest and increased prejudice against migrants
Late 1800's US Immigration Trends 1880 - 1900: The Rise of Big Business and Corporations
The New technology, inventions and innovations of the era provided entrepreneurs with the opportunity to create the massive organizations so bringing about the rise of Big Business and Corporations. The new businesses encouraged immigration as a resource for cheap, unskilled labor.
Late 1800's US Immigration Trends: The Second Industrial Revolution
The late 1800's US Immigration Trends were influenced by a period of intense economic and industrial growth due to the the Second Industrial Revolution in America, the growth of the mining industries and the rise of Big Business and Corporations. The inventions of the Second Industrial Revolution moved the American nation from the Industrial Age of Iron into the Age of Steel. New Innovations and Technologies replaced steam power with electric power and accelerated the Industrialization of America and introduced a new era of mass production and the introduction of factories in the cities manned by semi-skilled or completely unskilled workers.
Late 1800's US Immigration Trends 1880 - 1900: Urbanization in America
The US Immigration Trends in the late 1800's were heavily influenced by the factory system that led to Urbanization in America. In 1840 the United States had only 131 cities by 1900 that number had risen to over 1,700. A massive influx of unskilled immigrants flocked to the industrial cities to start their new life in America. Poor immigrants formed ethnic enclaves in America's cities where members of minority groups lived. There was a population explosion in the cities. By 1890 the population of New York City approached 2 million and 42% of the inhabitants were foreign born. The unskilled immigrants lived in the cheap, crowded conditions in the towns and cities and faced discrimination in the workplace from native workers.
Late 1800's US Immigration Trends: The Migrants
Northern European migrants migrated to the industrial centers of the United States and the period also saw the arrival of migrants from southern and eastern Europe, China, Japan and other Asian countries. In the 1880's, larger and faster steam powered ships, with lower fares became available to immigrants. Sailing ships had taken up to 3 months travel to America whereas steam powered ships reduced the time to 3 weeks. In the 1880's the number of Italian immigrants to the U.S. totaled 600,000. By 1920 more than 4 million migrants from Italy had entered the United States. Immigration also soared due to religious persecution when over one million Jews fled from different countries in Eastern Europe to the United States. The number of immigrants arriving during this period led rising wave of Nativism which was fueled by labor unions who feared that immigrants would work for lower wages than Americans or would become strike-breakers, undermining American workers.
Late 1800's US Immigration Trends: The Panic of 1893 and the Four Year Depression
The Panic of 1893 led to a four year economic depression with 20% unemployment. Over 125 railroads went into receivership and more than 15,000 companies and 600 banks were forced to close down. Wage levels also dropped. Protests and strikes increased and there was a massive backlash against immigration and the government was forced to take action.
US Immigration Trends 1880 - 1900: US Immigration Laws
US Immigration Trends declined in the 1890's due to government laws to restrict immigration. In 1892 the government passed the Chinese Exclusion Act and banned the immigration of all unskilled laborers from China for 10 years, and was extended by another ten years in 1892. In the same year the 1882 Immigration Act restricted immigrants from Europe, made several categories of immigrants ineligible for entry into the U.S. and imposed a 'head tax' of 50 cents on all immigrants landing at US ports. The 1885 Alien Contract Labor Law prohibited any company from bringing unskilled foreigners into the United States under contract to work for them. The first Federal immigration center was opened on January 1, 1892 on Ellis Island where immigrants from Europe were subjected to medical and legal examinations.
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